Category Archives: Pathologies

Dietary sulforaphane reduces oxidative stress in diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by increased oxidative stress, which may result in vascular pathologies (Bekyarova, Ivanova, and Madjova, 2007). Certain dietary phytochemicals may ameliorate oxidative stress and restore a more normal metabolic milieu. As reviewed by Angeloni, Leoncini, Malaguti, Angelini, Hrelia, and Hrelia (2009), one such phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli sprouts, sulforaphane (SFN), induces phase-II enzymes and increases endogenous antioxidant activity, Read more [...]

Hedonic hunger is increased with obesity and normalized with gastric bypass surgery

The increasingly convoluted relationship of appetite and obesity has recently been suggested by Lowe and Butyrn (2007) to be partially mediated by a mechanism referred to as “hedonic hunger,” or the craving for foods in the absence of energy needs. As gastric bypass surgery results in several neurobiological changes that may impact hedonic hunger, data in this population as well as obese subjects who have not undergone the surgery were collected in a recent study by Schultes, Ernst, Wilms, Thurnheer, Read more [...]

Latest Cochrane review on dietary fats and cardiovascular disease

Right on the heels of the updated Cochrane review on "Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease," (and the terrible reporting on it), another one is updated: "Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease." One of the authors (Lee Hooper) worked on the salt review as well. Given that this is a Cochrane review, it uses only RCTs (and only studies that tracked morbidity and mortality, not just intermediate risk factors). Of course as always, the caveats Read more [...]

Severe childhood obesity and state intervention

I've been following David Ludwig's commentaries in JAMA with interest lately; some of recent that I especially enjoyed: Extra Calories Cause Weight Gain—But How Much? (with Maritjn Katan) Front-of-Package Food Labels: Public Health or Propaganda? (with Marion Nestle) Dietary Guidelines in the 21st Century-a Time for Food (with Dariush Mozaffarian) - my favorite, which I blogged about here. Technology, Diet, and the Burden of Chronic Disease So I was excited to see on Tuesday that another Read more [...]

Increase in number of eating occasions, more than increases in food portion sizes or energy density per meal responsible for increased energy intake at the population level?

We know by now that an increase in calorie consumption since the 1970s by about 500 Calories per day for Americans is primarily fueling obesity.  Physical activity decline at the population level is a lesser contributor (and it is contentious if the 'decline' is significant).  For references, see those from Yoni's presentation in this post.  What is lesser known at this point is why people are eating more- what factors have the most influence on how much we eat per day?  There are many theories, Read more [...]

Forks vs feet obesity debate

On May 12 Drs. Yoni Freedhoff and Robert Ross held a debate on what should be the primary focus for obesity treatment: diet (Yoni) or exercise (Robert).  It seemed to me that the talks principally focused on what the primary cause of the obesity epidemic is by Yoni, and how exercise works in controlled environments and the benefits of exercise on co-morbidities by Ross.  Both of course recognize the importance of both for health and weight (especially maintenance as emphasized by Yoni), but that Read more [...]

Ageing per se increases susceptibility to lipid induced insulin resistance in rats

I am constantly on the lookout for studies on how biochemical mechanisms shift with age, the significance of these changes and how nutrition and lifestyle interact with them to potentially affect health.  Ageing itself is clearly an immensely complex process, and teasing out changes caused from ageing itself rather than known variables that effect health is difficult. A recent paper by Francine Einstein et al. (1) examined how age influences susceptibility to free fatty acid (FFA) induced insulin Read more [...]

Insulin resistance as a protective mechanism, a paradigm shift?

Oxidative stress has been implicated implicated in insulin resistance, and a new study by Hoehn et al. (1) adds some convincing evidence that one specific radical, superoxide generated in the mitochondria, may be a unifying cause.  But the findings suggest that we may need to reconsider how we treat it. The authors begin by suggesting that the failure of the recent ACCORD trial that found an increase in mortality when trying to lower glycated hemoglobin with drugs and/or insulin in diabetics Read more [...]